It is completely it would be correct to name the fate of social sciences for the latter of one-and-a-half century deeply tragic. In a sense, it is similar to the fate “of the lions of Islam”, of the struck terror into tens countries of Europe, Asia and Africa in XV -XVIII centuries, the furious and cruel soldiers of Ottoman Empire - Janizary.
Janizary, as is known, packaged by the Christian child, in other words, through the so-called “tax of the blood”, which covered the population of the Christian countries of the conquered Ottoman Empire. Every five years the Christians forcibly seized boys of five-twelve years, which taught Turkish language and conversion to Islam. To twenty years, as a result special preparation, from them were obtained unique “universal soldiers”, ready on the order of Turkish sultan to destroy any enemy.
In this case, entire tragedy of fate Janizary consisted not so many in that, that they from the childhood were torn from their relatives and close ones and they were placed into the completely alien culture medium, it is how much in that, that the cruelty and martial spirit Janizary was sent, according to the intention of Turkish rulers, first of all, against the Christian peace, that is to say, against that peace, partly which there were themselves Janizary.
Something more similarly it occurred also with the sphere of social knowledge. The considerable achievements of experimental sciences in XVII-XIX centuries led their followers to the desire to extend the methodology of natural sciences to the sphere, it is traditional, even from the Aristotelian times, located out of the limits “of physics”, i.e., in “moral” sciences, within the framework which at that time were conducted all possible social studies.
In this case, the algorithm of reformation assumed the preliminary radical purification of social knowledge from all possible “normative” mediators, first of all from the philosophy, which, from the point of view of the pioneers of Neo-European science, the process of scientific knowledge only clogs, and the subsequent introduction of the empirical methodology of a study.
So in the middle XIX of century arose Janizary positivism in the social knowledge - sociology, and only is later political science, decisively rejected its “dark, metaphysical past” and proclaimed by their ideals natural sciences. They declared experience sole source and criterion of the truth of knowledge and zealously started to master extremely complex and ambiguous social and political reality by the methods of experimental sciences.
By its curved “yataghans” - by empirical observations and by experimental test work of theories - it is pitiless, as if actually they did not remember their origin, they started to destroy any reminding about the complexity and ambiguities of social and political life. In the essence, they destroyed from the social knowledge its precisely those aspects, because of which the sphere of social existence is differed from existence of the inanimate nature.
A, thus, they fought precisely with the fact, which once and gave birth to them. But to realize this, in view of the domination of positivism in the quite natural-science knowledge of middle XIX - began XX of century, not sociology, not political science, independently they did not can.
Enlightenment began much later, after that, as collapsed “Ottoman Empire in the science”, i.e., when natural sciences themselves realized the limits of positivism and forewent the absolutization of empirical methodology. Janizary suddenly realized, that they were “its, among the strangers, and by strangers, among its”, and at the beginning of the 70's XX of century, being its deserted previous masters, they decided to return to their sources, to that same, hated by positivism, to the specific character of sociopolitical phenomena. But after returning, revealed only by them left “ruins”.
Thus, by absolutely lost, not entrusting more to the achievements of its former idol - natural science - and not frankly understanding classical social knowledge, social sciences entered in XXI century.
PS Sorry for my English